The name epoxy comes from the fact that the molecules in this system of resins contain carbon-oxygen, which is why they are called epoxies. The oxygen atom is attached to two carbon atoms, which are attached in other ways. Therefore, the simplest type of epoxy is ethylene oxide, the reactivity of epoxy resins depending on the type of ethylene oxide groups. Due to their specific molecular structure, epoxy groups have a very high REACTIVITY characteristic. They can be mixed with more than 50 chemical specimens (SPECIES) to form resin-treated and hardened systems. Amines, amides, esters, trifluorobarbon, etc. Can be named as the types of hardening agents that are sometimes called hardeners.
It should be noted that the difference in the use of curing agents with hardened resin floors products (SET) creates different characteristics. Therefore, according to the physical performance expected from a systematization, the operating materials or (CURING-AGENTS) should be selected so that this expectation is achieved. However, the resins used in practice result from mixing and blending several systems that have been blended in exact proportions. This is beyond the reach of an operator. Usually, in this way, the formulators buy the main components of the resins and, with sufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the various agents, carefully paying attention to the resin flooring system in practice and after weighing and mixing the proportions accurately. Necessary from the base and agent of resins, make the desired resin.
It is noteworthy that sometimes, in addition to the resin base, materials in fillers and modifiers can be used to help make the desired oleoresin. Since 1940, when epoxies were used in the road and construction industry, they have been used to bond building parts, inject cracks, coatings, patch repairs, screws, machine foundation reinforcement, and abrasive surfaces been used in waterworks as an adhesive. The main reasons for the interest and use of epoxy resins by engineers can be described as follows:
(A) Having a low viscosity (concentration) that facilitates its penetration.
(B) Depending on the setting and the ambient temperature, the epoxy resins harden in a short time.
(C) Because the epoxy system of resins is formulated in such a way that it is free of solvent, the changes in the placement and rearrangement of molecules during the curing of the system are very small, and the shrinkage during hardening in The limit is also low. Also, these systems do not experience other reactions during processing and internal combinations.
(D) Having very high gluing power.
Despite the above advantages of epoxies, limiting factors must be carefully considered when choosing these systems. Some of these limiting factors can be expressed as follows:
1- The mother concrete surface should be strong, clean, and dry for most epoxy systems.
2- The heat resulting from the composition and processing of epoxy can be significantly higher than conventional cement repair systems due to their exothermic effect.
3- Although the shrinkage power of epoxy systems, according to their manufacturers, is negligible, their negative effects can not be ignored. This can have devastating consequences, especially when combined with the effect of heat generated (EXOTHERMIC).
4- For the use of epoxies, the minimum ambient temperature is usually 5 degrees Celsius, which must be fully observed, and it may be necessary to control this issue again. Of course, these limitations are if we expect the system to achieve its maximum resistance in a relatively short time.
5- Most epoxy systems are sensitive to moisture. Therefore, when using epoxy systems, humidity and wetting of the environment should be considered and studied.
6- The ratio of components and the complete mixing of components of epoxy systems must be carefully controlled and examined. It should be noted that the importance of this matter in the eyes of people who are constantly dealing with ordinary cementitious materials is not so much that it attracts the attention of those involved as it deserves.
7- The issue of safety is of special importance and must be observed in all stages. It should be noted that the components of epoxy systems can cause very serious discomfort if they come in contact with the skin or inhale the epoxy vapor. In addition, some components are combustible, which makes compliance with safety principles and considerations mandatory. Places where epoxy is used should be well ventilated, especially when epoxies are used in confined spaces.
8- It should be noted that there is a huge difference between the modulus of elasticity (elasticity coefficient) of epoxies and the elasticity coefficient of mother concrete and the thermal expansion coefficient of the two, which is necessary to compare and apply the necessary measures if necessary. The significant difference of the above coefficients causes shear stresses in the boundary between the epoxy and the old concrete. In case of an excessive increase, it causes the separation of the two systems from each other.
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