What is epoxy resin flooring?

Epoxy resin flooring , which today have a very high efficiency of materials in strengthening, repairing, and strengthening various structures, especially in composite products, are composed of epoxy resin and hardeners. These materials are also used to manufacture solid moulds, with good adhesion to various layers, high chemical resistance (especially in very acidic and alkaline environments) and good tensile, compressive and flexural strength in the construction industry. Epoxy Resin is also used to produce various electrical components due to its insulation and in the aerospace, aircraft and automotive industries for internal and external connections. However, the most effective use of epoxy resin can be seen in the manufacture of FRP composites.
Another area of ​​application of epoxy resin is using this product like a floor covering for halls, factories and other surfaces to increase the resistance of concrete against corrosion agents and chemicals.
4 mm thick epoxy coating increases the compressive strength of concrete by about 21100 kg/cm. Epoxy resin flooring with low concentration and high penetration strength has high initial and final stability.

Properties of epoxy resin flooring

  • Resistance to chemicals
  • High resistance to water and moisture
  • Resistant to absorption of mechanical and thermal stresses
  • High abrasion and impact resistance
  • Excellent adhesion to materials and compatibility with a variety of fibres and FRP systems
  • High filling capability
  • Low weight and low volume
  • Durability and high speed of repair

Disadvantages of epoxy resin flooring

  • Its price is higher than other types of resin.
  • Epoxy resin processing is time-consuming because the curing time of epoxy resin and polymerization process is lengthy.
  • Epoxy resin is not flexible and is prone to cracking.
  • Does not work at temperatures below 5 degrees Celsius.

The characteristics of epoxy baked goods depend on the following:

  • Type of epoxy
  • Type and amount of hardener
  • Degree of networking
  • The nature and volume of additives
epoxy resin flooring
Epoxy Resin Flooring

Cause the epoxy and hardener mixture does not dry

When working with epoxy resin, we may encounter the following problems:

  • Epoxy resin does not dry
  • Epoxy resin becomes viscous and soft

Here are some things to keep in mind to avoid these problems:

  • See the correct mixing ratio

The resin does not dry due to a lack of hardeners in the system.

  • Existence of water or moisture in the system

The epoxy resin flooring mixing container is not completely dry, or the work surface or air is wet

  • Epoxy and hardener do not mix well
  • Temperature control

The air temperature should not be less than 10 degrees. The surface temperature is less than 5 degrees Celsius because the epoxy and hardening reaction stops at low temperatures, and the resin does not dry out. Excessive heat can also interfere with the drying of the epoxy resin. The air used can be 50 degrees Celsius.

  • Surface contamination

Contaminated work surfaces are like grease and dust that interfere with the drying of epoxy resin.

Types of epoxy resins and their applications

Epoxy putty
Epoxy putty is a solvent-free two-component material based on an epoxy resin used to level the bed surface and fill joints and cracks in reinforcement projects, reinforcing the structure with FRP composites. Epoxy resin has high adhesion and has a high mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance. It is also called epoxy repair because it is used to restore concrete surfaces to install FRP fibres in reinforcement projects.
Epoxy remover can be used on vertical and horizontal surfaces and does not shrink and shrink during setting. This product quickly penetrates the cracks and acts as an integrated system after setting. High strength, lack of impact against moisture and environmental factors, ease of application and increased adhesion of epoxy putty are the advantages of this epoxy resin that has led to its use in the reinforcement of buildings.
In addition to topics related to FRP composite reinforcement, filling pores and cracks, and levelling and repairing damaged concrete, epoxy putty can be used in bathrooms, factory floors, swimming pools, and as an intermediate layer of epoxy resin flooring .

Epoxy primer
Epoxy primer is a two-component material based on epoxy resins that can penetrate deep into the concrete and prepare concrete surfaces in the reinforcement and reinforcement of structures with FRP composites. The adhesion of this epoxy resin is high and has excellent penetration power, so it has many applications in structural support.
This product can be used in industrial tanks and metal structures due to its good adhesion to metal surfaces.
Epoxy primer can be used as a primer for repair mortar and epoxy industrial flooring in concrete surfaces, gymnasiums, laboratories, etc., in addition to use in FRP composite reinforcement issues. This product withstands stresses from the floor when used as the floor surface.

Epoxy adhesive
The most helpful epoxy resin in building reinforcement with FRP and consists of two parts, epoxy resin and hardener and has very high strength. Uses of the epoxy resin include: making FRP composites for use in various industries such as building restoration and reinforcement, making FRP composites, automotive, aircraft and …
Some of the features of epoxy adhesive that have made this product very popular are:

  • The tensile, flexural and compressive strength of the epoxy adhesive is very high. Therefore, they play a significant role in the construction of FRP composites and the building reinforcement industry.
  • Epoxy resin is very resistant to various chemicals such as acids, salts, oils, solvents, etc. and is not affected by these substances.
  • The price of epoxy adhesive is very economical due to its high adhesion and wide application
  • Epoxy resins are very resistant to heat, abrasion and moisture.
  • The epoxy adhesive does not shrink when hardened and creates very high adhesion at all levels.

Injectable epoxy resin
Injectable epoxy resin flooring is a two-component, solvent-free material consisting of two components, hardener and agent. It is used to fill joints and repair concrete cracks, and strengthen and reinforce structural elements such as beams, columns, resin floors, etc. It has high adhesion and permeability and cracks repair in concrete.
Epoxy injection resin is a dilute yellow liquid that has high resistance to chemicals and impact. This epoxy resin flooring can easily penetrate the cracks and perform the task of repairing concrete cracks with high adhesion and hardening strength. It does not shrink when dry; it can be used on dry and wet concrete surfaces to repair concrete cracks and strengthen structural elements.
The steps of repairing concrete cracks are as follows: after removing the contamination from the surface of the packer or nipple element, which is responsible for transferring the resin into the break, we place it at certain intervals, then continue the injection operation until the injected epoxy resin rejects. Finally, the concrete is cracked to ensure the correctness of the reinforcement. Injected epoxy resin is widely used in support of structural members and the repair of concrete cracks.

Epoxy mortar
Epoxy mortar is a solvent-free three-component product based on epoxy resin with precise granulation and low weight. Epoxy mortar does not have fluid, so it is suitable for use on horizontal and overhead surfaces. High mechanical strength and anti-corrosion properties of epoxy mortar are among them. It is also used in laying concrete surfaces. These mortars do not need a primer.

Dough epoxy gel
The epoxy gel is used in cases where it is not possible to saturate the FRP fibres. This epoxy gel is used in laminate installation and FRP rebar installation in the NSM method and high and vertical surfaces. The combination of paste epoxy gel with silica sand can be used as a repair mortar.

More Information

The name epoxy comes from the fact that the molecules in this system of resins contain carbon-oxygen, which is why they are called epoxies. The oxygen atom is attached to two carbon atoms, which are attached in other ways. Therefore, the simplest type of epoxy is ethylene oxide, the reactivity of epoxy resins depending on the type of ethylene oxide groups. Due to their specific molecular structure, epoxy groups have a very high REACTIVITY characteristic. They can be mixed with more than 50 chemical specimens (SPECIES) to form resin-treated and hardened systems. Amines, amides, esters, trifluorobarbon, etc. Can be named as the types of hardening agents that are sometimes called hardeners.
It should be noted that the difference in the use of curing agents with hardened  epoxy resin floors products (SET) creates different characteristics. Therefore, according to the physical performance expected from a systematization, the operating materials or (CURING-AGENTS) should be selected so that this expectation is achieved. However, the resins used in practice result from mixing and blending several systems that have been blended in exact proportions. This is beyond the reach of an operator. Usually, in this way, the formulators buy the main components of the resins and, with sufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the various agents, carefully paying attention to the epoxy resin flooring system in practice and after weighing and mixing the proportions accurately. Necessary from the base and agent of resins, make the desired resin.
It is noteworthy that sometimes, in addition to the resin base, materials in fillers and modifiers can be used to help make the desired oleoresin. Since 1940, when epoxies were used in the road and construction industry, they have been used to bond building parts, inject cracks, coatings, patch repairs, screws, machine foundation reinforcement, and abrasive surfaces been used in waterworks as an adhesive. The main reasons for the interest and use of epoxy resin flooring by engineers can be described as follows:

(A) Having a low viscosity (concentration) that facilitates its penetration.
(B) Depending on the setting and the ambient temperature, the epoxy resins harden in a short time.
(C) Because the epoxy system of resin flooring is formulated in such a way that it is free of solvent, the changes in the placement and rearrangement of molecules during the curing of the system are very small, and the shrinkage during hardening in The limit is also low. Also, these systems do not experience other reactions during processing and internal combinations.
(D) Having very high gluing power.

types of epoxy resin flooring
Types of epoxy resin flooring

Despite the above advantages of epoxies, limiting factors must be carefully considered when choosing these systems. Some of these limiting factors can be expressed as follows:
1- The mother concrete surface should be strong, clean, and dry for most epoxy systems.
2- The heat resulting from the composition and processing of epoxy can be significantly higher than conventional cement repair systems due to their exothermic effect.
3- Although the shrinkage power of epoxy systems, according to their manufacturers, is negligible, their negative effects can not be ignored. This can have devastating consequences, especially when combined with the effect of heat generated (EXOTHERMIC).
4- For the use of epoxies, the minimum ambient temperature is usually 5 degrees Celsius, which must be fully observed, and it may be necessary to control this issue again. Of course, these limitations are if we expect the system to achieve its maximum resistance in a relatively short time.
5- Most epoxy systems are sensitive to moisture. Therefore, when using epoxy systems, humidity and wetting of the environment should be considered and studied.
6- The ratio of components and the complete mixing of components of epoxy systems must be carefully controlled and examined. It should be noted that the importance of this matter in the eyes of people who are constantly dealing with ordinary cementitious materials is not so much that it attracts the attention of those involved as it deserves.
7- The issue of safety is of special importance and must be observed in all stages. It should be noted that the components of epoxy systems can cause very serious discomfort if they come in contact with the skin or inhale the epoxy vapor. In addition, some components are combustible, which makes compliance with safety principles and considerations mandatory. Places where epoxy is used should be well ventilated, especially when epoxies are used in confined spaces.
8- It should be noted that there is a huge difference between the modulus of elasticity (elasticity coefficient) of epoxies and the elasticity coefficient of mother concrete and the thermal expansion coefficient of the two, which is necessary to compare and apply the necessary measures if necessary. The significant difference of the above coefficients causes shear stresses in the boundary between the epoxy and the old concrete. In case of an excessive increase, it causes the separation of the two systems from each other.

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